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小学1-6年级
老师,请问一下宾语从句的特点是什么?
添加日期:2016年12月21日
老师回答

宾语从句结构:

在复合句中用作宾语的从句叫做宾语从句。作主句谓语动词、介词或某些形容词的宾语。

Eg: I know the man.

用一个句子来充当宾语  Eg: I know that the man is a policeman.(动宾)  

主句  引导词   从句

Eg:Your success will largely depend upon what you do and how you do it.(介宾)

宾语从句三大块: 1. 引导宾语从句的连词和代词选择; 

2. 宾语从句的语序; 

3. 宾语从句的时态。

Ⅰ.宾语从句的引导词

1.陈述句充当宾语从句时,用that引导,that无词义,在口语或非正式文体中常省略。

My teacher said I was a good boy.

She doesn’t know (that) she is seriously ill.    

I am sure (that) he will succeed.

2.当由一般疑问句充当宾语从句时,用ifwhether引导,意为是否


I don’t know if /whether Jim is a good student.

(2) Does Kate get up early? Do you know?

Do you know if /whether Kate gets up early?

注意:只能用whether不用if 的三种情况

•          一般情况下,if 和whether可以互换,但以下3种  情况只能用whether:

•          ①与or not连用:

He asked me whether or not I was coming.   Let me know whether you can come or not.

•          ②在介词之后:

It depends on whether it is going to rain.     I worry about whether I hurt her feelings

•          ③在不定式之前:

We haven’t decided whether to go there.       I don’t know whether to accept or refuse.


1.3.如果宾语从句原来是特殊疑问句,只需用原来的疑问词引导。(即使 由连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which和连接副词when, where, why, how引导的宾语从句,且这些连接代词和连接副词在宾语从句中充当某个成分)

 

1.What is she doing?  Can you tell me?

Can you tell me what she is doing?

2.Where does she live? Do you know?

Do you know where she lives?

Ⅱ.宾语从句的语序必须是陈述语序

句式

连词

语序

例句

陈述句

That

不变

I think that we can be good friends.

一般疑问句

if/whether

改为陈述语序

I can’t remember if I posted the letter.

特殊疑问句

特殊疑问词

改为陈述语序

He asked who was our English teacher.

注意事项:

(一)当从句的原句为以下句子以及what, who作主语时,语序不变:

What’s wrong?  What’s the matter?

What’s happening?

eg:I don’t know what’s the matter.

Can you tell me who is over there?

Ⅲ.宾语从句与主句的时态要相互呼应(主现从随意,主过从过去)

1. 如果主句的时态是一般现在时,宾语从句的时态根据具体情况来确定。

例如:I don’t think (that) you are right.
      Please tell us where we’ll go fishing tomorrow.

Do you know when Mr. Smith moved here?

2. 如果主句的时态是一般过去时,宾语从句只能用相应的过去时态(一般过去时, 过去进行时, 过去将来时,过去完成时)。

例如:   He asked what time it was. 

He told me that he was preparing for the sports meet.   

He asked if you had written to Peter.

特殊情况:.从句说明的是一般真理、客观事实、自然现象、名言时,任用现在时。

He told the boy that three and three is six.

Could you tell me where the bookshop is.

 

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